Poland And Russia Will Fight For Control Of Europe

It’s been hundreds of years since Poland was a major power, and it’s making a comeback just in time for geopolitical analyst Robert Kaplan to declare mass migration is returning Europe to medieval divisions. Were I a Pole, I would be delighted.

Between May and October of 2015, Poland underwent a seismic political shift to the right just as Angela Merkel almost single-handedly flooded Europe with a multi-million man army from the Near East. A May presidential election resulted in a victory for Andrzej Duda of the “national conservative” Law and Justice party. A few months later, Law and Justice won an outright majority of parliamentary seats (the only time a party has done that since 1989). The same election resulted in the ousting of all left-wing MPs from the Polish parliament (the Sejm). Jacobin Magazine laments:

There is not a single left member of parliament in Poland, by any definition of “left” you care to choose. There is no social-democratic party, no radical left party, no green party, barely even a social liberal party. Nothing. In the European Union’s fifth largest country, the Left is simply nowhere to be found.

The opposition became another large right-wing party, Civic Platform, that shares a European Parliament group with Austria’s Freedom Party and Hungary’s Fidesz (though, admittedly, also Germany’s CDU – though that may not last very long). In 2009, the Civic Platform government approved mandatory castration of pedophiles, “sparking criticism from human rights groups.” You can probably guess that the rest of their positions on social issues would get them excoriated and disavowed by Republican or Conservative politicians in the USA and UK.

Even Poland’s Bernie Sanders-tier youthful idealist party is right-wing: punk musician Pawel Kukiz’s party won 42% of the 18-29 vote in October and promptly handed over five seats to the far-right National Movement, which cooperates with Hungary’s Jobbik.

Politics in Poland, much like in Hungary, has become a two-sided duel between very right-wing and very, very right-wing parties. And these are no impotent or unaware right-wingers.

Poland’s newly-appointed foreign minister explained to Germany’s Bild:

Under the previous government a specific left-wing policy concept was followed with which the world must move in only one direction, the Marxist model – to a new mix of cultures and races, a world of cyclists and vegetarians who only focus on renewable energies and fight against any form of religion. This has nothing to do with traditional Polish values.

His counterpart at the defence ministry was denounced in the Western press for giving a past interview in which he said he read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and argued that “experience shows that there are such groups in Jewish circles.” A few months ago the government pushed through laws that extended their control over Poland’s public media and Constitutional Court. This also irritated the usual suspects. Three days ago it was reported that the government abolished a public body named the “Council Against Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance,” even “amid the increasing number of racially motivated attacks and rising xenophobia” described by “human rights Ombudsman” Adam Bodnar. Just yesterday the head of Law and Justice declared that Poland will accept no “refugees” from the EU, and will refuse to pay any fines imposed for doing so.

With all this in mind, it may be natural to assume Poland’s government has a pro-Russian stance (like Hungary’s does) when it comes to foreign policy, or at least a neutral stance. But that assumption would be totally false. Despite the huge gulf in opinion & policy between Poland’s government and the bureaucratic classes that run USG, the EU, NATO, etc., Poland maintains a strongly anti-Russian stance, to the point of deploying 46,000 Polish troops to the Polish-Russian border, demanding a larger NATO presence (that means U.S. troops and U.S. tanks) in Poland and the Baltics and suggesting Putin’s Russia might have territorial ambitions to the West of Crimea.

You may ascribe this to residual anti-Moscow sentiment from before 1991, or even deeper anti-Russian sentiment stemming from wars and occupations going back to Tsarist times. That was certainly my first thought. Further examination reveals a more compelling conclusion, however.

Back in February 2015 I predicted that, as the West entered its terminal phase, the geopolitical fight in Europe would unfold between Russia and Islam. I imagined it would begin with proxy war between Moscow-funded nativist groups and Riyadh-funded Islamist groups, with both serving as pawns for far-off foreign powers fighting for the scraps of Western civilization left remaining after the full achievement of equality, diversity and tolerance. In light of the sudden rise of Poland, it is time to reassess this view.

Why would Poland assume a strong anti-Russian position just as Obama and Merkel issue diktats requiring subservience to Brussels and unrestricted Muslim settlement in Poland? Poland isn’t run by the American Janissaries who rule tiny states in precarious positions like Latvia. Warsaw’s closest ally in Budapest has understandably found Moscow a more natural ally than Berlin, Brussels or Washington. Why hasn’t Warsaw?

It’s probably not an unthinking reaction. More likely is that Poland’s government has observed the geopolitical playing field and concluded that they do not need Russia to survive the EU/USG/Islamic onslaught. This is a momentous development in a world where the only three discernibly sovereign countries are Russia, China and the “International Community.” Poland may soon be the fourth sovereign country, or, to be more accurate, the “Visegrad Community” of Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic may soon be the fourth sovereign country. The four have already done an outstanding job resisting EU directives, and Poland’s program of centralization and de-democratization was just a rehash of what Viktor Orban’s Fidesz has been doing in Hungary since 2011. Orban famously stated he wanted to recreate Hungary as an “illiberal state” in the images of Russia, Turkey or China.

It would be a mistake to view Poland’s involvement in NATO as evidence of Polish dependence. For the moment, Poland is getting the benefits of Western military cooperation without the downsides of adopting Western policies on the media, immigration, national sovereignty, and so on. That does not indicate Poland is dependent, rather that Poland is calling the shots. Poland just secured membership as the first Central or Eastern European country in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, China’s answer to the World Bank. Poland is getting its cake and eating it, too. It is antagonizing both Russia and the Cathedral to its West, while remaining independent. This is a sea change for a country whose history since the 18th century has been as a battlefield for nearby powers – Poland has been partitioned at least 7 times since 1772.

Someone in the Polish leadership or security services has calculated that, rather than requiring Russian support against Western encroachment on national sovereignty, Poland will be able fend off Merkel and the rest of them all the way down to the point that USG and the EU completely collapse under the weight of their own leftism. At that point, Poland would prefer to already be on a solid anti-Russian footing, and would prefer to be a power in its own right rather than a beneficiary of the Kremlin. Hungary might have been pursuing a similar path if not for the fact that Poland has access to the sea, an influential diaspora, and is 4x larger than Hungary in area and population.

Time might lead to a rapprochement between the Visegrad Four and Russia on account of Hungary. It may also lead to a veritable rebirth of Central European civilization – the Mitteleuropa that was maimed in 1918 and shot in the head in 1945 – under the combined leaderships of Warsaw and Budapest. With the accelerating liberalism of the current Pontiff, such a leadership may even split off its own branch of right-wing, nationalistic Catholicism.

There is other evidence for a Polish power in Europe, too.

Back in 2010, George Friedman, the founder of the private intelligence firm Stratfor, published The Next 100 Years, detailing his predictions for world developments of the 21st century. Among other things, he predicted that Poland and Turkey would become European powers by virtue of their military support from the United States and ability to weather the 2007-08 financial crisis.

Friedman cited Israel and South Korea as examples of small U.S.-backed countries that became very powerful. While I would question these comparisons, I would not argue that American support has hurt Poland, or that Poland’s economy has proven lackluster. Investment and money have been flowing into Poland from the West even as bodies and brainpower have flowed East out of Poland. Drab, communist Poland now has a middle class.

The outflow of labor and talent which likely dampened Poland’s economic rise (though didn’t prevent it) hasn’t been all bad either, as it has led to the formation of one of the largest and most powerful ethnic diasporas in the world. Can you think of another rising power with a large and potent diaspora?

Martin Jacques was already writing about China’s powerful diaspora in 2008 in the context of worldwide demonstrations in favor of the Beijing Olympics – and against Tibet. Demonstrations are a popular display of power by those who already have it. By that standard, China has power centers all over the globe. In fact, the 45 million or more “Overseas Chinese” make up significant minorities in many Asian and Western countries and have totally occupied neighborhoods in the centers of most major Western cities. San Francisco’s Chinatown is probably the most famous, but there are copies in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and a litany of other places, including most cities in Britain, Canada, and Australia. Just in America, this diaspora has helped the Chinese government steal U.S. military secrets as well as provide a base for Chinese organized crime to enter American civil society and electoral politics.

There are some 40 million Poles in Poland, but perhaps another 20 million or so people of Polish descent living outside Poland. Unlike the descendants of German or Italian immigrants to the United States, Polish immigrants – even third or fourth generation ones – often still speak Polish and remain heavily tied to the Polish community, even as they speak English in perfect Midwestern accents. There are 10 million in America alone. Much like Chinatown is often the safest neighborhood for white hipsters and yuppies in American urban centers, Redfin listed the Ukrainian Village in Chicago as the hottest neighborhood in the country. Apparently both the old Polish downtowns in Chicago and Brooklyn are now hipster neighborhoods. Polish ethnic preference may become a very valuable thing for deracinated whites in a collapsing, violent, Third World America. The Polish-American community isn’t the most strategically important one, however. That distinction would go to the Poles living in Western Europe.

There are more than 2 million Poles living in Germany, 1 million living in France, 600,000 in the United Kingdom, and smaller populations numbering in the tens or hundreds of thousands in Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Austria, Spain and other countries. These more recent groups send close to $3 billion USD in remittances back to Poland each year. In the UK especially, these Polish emigrants have formed nationalist émigré groups that have already caught the attention of the media for their shenanigans. As Britain, Germany and the rest of Western Europe degenerate into a semi-Islamized multicultural salmagundi, you can expect more Polish nationalism abroad, not less.

A rising Poland will inspire these emigrant patriots, but it is not necessarily going to lure them back. After all, it is not Poles in Britain or Germany who have a stigma against ethnic solidarity and homogeneous communities, but the natives. Poles can survive diversity by banding together. Brits and Germans haven’t learned how to do that yet, and are more likely to simply leave for Australia and never look back. More likely is that in 20-30 years you will have a powerful Polish state cooperating with Polish emigrant groups and Polish organized crime across Europe to send intelligence and money to Poland and influence politics and other affairs in Poland’s near abroad.

The website Global Firepower, which lists and compares the military strengths of various countries, puts Poland at #18 worldwide, above Iran, Taiwan, Spain, Australia, Canada and Saudi Arabia. Poland comes out above Ukraine, which is more populous but currently losing a war with Russia in Donbass despite extensive aid and management from the U.S. State Department. Poland does not have nuclear weapons, but it has plenty of citizens and co-ethnics who live and work in countries that do. Wink wink.

A Visegrad bloc led by Poland could become a formidable geopolitical force with a determined leadership and careful planning. More importantly, if that bloc can outlast the Western DC-Brussels axis – and all indicators say it can and probably will – the Visegrad bloc will be a resurgent Russia’s only competition in Europe. It will be smaller and less powerful, but an effective counterweight with greater ties to the region than Russia. Whatever proto-Caliphates are being dreamed of by Muslims in Europe right now (looking at you, Sadiq Khan) may soon be seen as comical as a flood of Polish and Russian power displaces the current American-Islamic pincer that dictates European life from the top and bottom, respectively.

Forget “Eurabia” – that is only valid so long as the current regime is around, and said regime is too incompetent for its own good to survive for very long. American withdrawal, native revolt (with Russian instigation, one would imagine), financial collapse or a sudden Emirate of Europistan would all be enough to end the current system and send millions of Third Worlders fleeing back home. Once the pot boils over, it’s all over for Merkel. The Polish-Russian tangle that comes afterwards might be the defining event of European history in the 21st century.

I, for one, welcome our new Polish overlords.

Mark Yuray is verified on Gab. Follow him there and on Twitter.

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  1. This was an intrigueing article. Consider that the Polish hostility to Russia is personal, owing to the Smolensk disaster in large part. And I doubt Russia has any near-term Imperial plans beyond its border regions. It must by necessity absorb Ukraine, Georgia and Belarus.

    I would expect the Russian government at that time to be willing to give a peace offering to Poland in the form of Ukrainian land which once belonged to them (along with returning most of Moldova and Bukovina to Romania.)

    You are right that Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (not sure about the Czechs) could form a very powerful bloc in Central Europe, but could they extend influence westward? It seems doubtful, because the motives aren’t really there. I definitely still think Islam will be a factor here,with loss of civil order in countries where Muslims are gaining power in urban locales (Sadiq Khan). In the immediate, Poland will be looking out for Poland, so if you area Frenchman trying to escape Islamic biker gangs with maces, don’t be surprised if they shut the door on you, kurwa.

    I can almost imagine a new Berlin Wall, but this time protecting those Visegrad nations from the chaos of the West. When the US ceases to be a factor in Europe, Poland will certainly have no need to continue pretending democracy.

    Unrelated, I cannot wait to see what based Serbs do when EU dream finally implodes. Kebabs are going to be removed.

    1. Good point about the Smolensk disaster. I forgot to include that in the piece.

      For those who don’t know, in 2010, a Polish government plane crashed in Russia and killed all 96 people on board, including the:

      – President of Poland
      – The president’s wife
      – The former president of Poland
      – Chief of the Polish General Staff
      – President of the National Bank of Poland
      – 18 members of the Polish parliament
      – Senior military officers
      – Senior members of the Polish clergy
      – Senior government officials
      – Relatives of victims of the Katyn massacre

      The plane was flying to Smolensk to attend an anniversary ceremony for the Katyn massacre of 1940, when Beria’s Soviet NKVD massacred 22,000 members of the Polish Officer Corps, police officers and members of the Polish intelligentsia.

      This event was traumatic for the Poles, to say the least — as was the Smolensk crash.

      1. The death of so many politicians maybe was what destabilized the political order enough for the rise of the right.

  2. Good post.

    With regard to Mitteleuropa, there seems to be a convergence going on with the Right wing parties in the former Habsburg empire.

    I’m not sure if you’re aware of this but this new initiative seems to be getting strong support in Central Europe. Perhaps the Hapsburgs may rise from the dead?


    Baltic/Adriatic/Black Sea Initiative

    1. Interesting. Doesn’t look as striking as the V4 convergence, but there is something going on. A resurgent Visegrad bloc would find allies among the Baltics, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria.

      In fact, countries like Romania, Bulgaria and the Baltic States may be hotly contested in a Visegrad-Russia showdown.

  3. A wildcard!

    1) Chauvinism from Slovakia and/or Romania regarding their Hungarian minorities pisses off Hungarians
    2) Hungarian “far-far-right” overthrows “far-right”
    3) Hilarity, irredentism ensues; bloc fails

    Hungary is the critical point of weakness for a central European bloc. I don’t envision the necessary leadership coming from the shitholes surrounding it to ensure collective interest prevails over short-sighted political gain and the machinations of foreign great powers. But then if everyone else has gone to hell, maybe Hungary will choose the lesser of two evils.

    Btw central Europe has its own demographic time-bomb: they’re called gypsies. They breed faster than Western muslims and are even less likely to integrate, ie normalise birthrates. You can bet civil war will come eventually.

    1. True, but two points:
      1) central Europe has never had a problem culling the gypsies when they call for it, and
      2) they’re doing a pretty good job shipping their gypsies into the open arms of Merkel and the Pussyfooters

      1. Sounds like a nice casus belli for somebody, probably Turkey

    2. Steps 1-3 are a potential problem and buttress my antipathy towards radical nationalism. Nationalism tends to be bad for nations much like democracy tends to be bad for people.

      Gypsies are not and will not become a problem. Rhetocrates (below) brings out two good points: haven’t had a problem with them yet, and they are shipping themselves out to Western Europe.

      The third point is that gypsies are dumber than Muslims, possibly as dumb as Africans, and totally incapable of governing anything or organizing themselves into social units larger than a little family mafia. They don’t have a violent gypsy religion, nor are they smart enough to care about ideology. Gypsies have evolved to quite literally become a race of itinerant thieves, and that is not going to suit them well for war or conquest.

      The only way gypsies become a problem is if liberal-progressive leftists from abroad come in and weaponize them much like they did with blacks elsewhere. But since the whole reason for my optimism is the foresight of the Polish and Hungarian governments in putting the kibosh on the [liberal, foreign] media, the [liberal, foreign] NGOs, etc., that is unlikely to happen.

      1. I hope you’re right; but like I suggested, any “disincentives” employed would give foreign players a legitimate reason to intervene. Some things don’t change, but the stance on genocide in international relations very much has (ignoring Africa, which of course doesn’t count). The best way to deal with a population like the roma would be pay them to be circumcised: people would chuck a shit, but it isn’t so unpleasant as to give mandate to foreign aggression/sanctions/etc.

        The zigan birth rate is frightening. I’m sure is always has been, but Malthusian attrition (and in the good old days, slavery) kept them in order. No longer the case. This is why I say past rules no longer apply, and why this has to be dealt with in a proactive manner instead of waiting until it explodes into civil conflict. With how much certainty can “east-central” Europe rely on the goodwill of the West feeding and housing their human waste? And when gyppos are half the population of some countries (as they may well be within our lifetimes), for how much longer can you bank on their ineptitude?

        If there’s any great social project that will bring central Europe together, it’s sorting the gypsies out.

        PS: good article, cheers

        1. Er, by circumcised, I mean castrated lol

    3. Chauvinism from Romania regarding Hungarian minorities? You are either hungarian or extremely manipulated. Last year in 2015, a bombing attempt organised by few hungarians from a Romanian region(against romanians) has been thwarted by our special forces on our national day(they wanted the explosions to synchronize with our national anthem). Two of them were arrested immediately and the next day the entire hungarian minority was protesting for their innocence and for their release(in my opinion they should be as guilty as the bombing organizers). The hungarian minority from Romania wants autonomy and separation from our country in a region found in the central area of Romania(Harghita&Covasna), an island of few hungarians in the middle of our country. Who is chauvinistic now? The hungarians act like terrorists and spread hate for the local romanians living in Harghita&Covasna. If i go there to buy something from a shop, supermarket or try to eat in a restaurant hungarians won’t serve me even if i speak in english when they realise i’m romanian, “nem tu dom” is all you hear. And if you want to talk about the past, Hungary is just a smaller Russia, a little country with imperial ambitions, who invaded neighbors and seized big areas of land. Most of the land hungarians are claiming is not theirs, is stolen. And not taken without mass murders. In Romania, your beloved Horthy killed tens of thousands of innocent romanian civilians, a real genocide, in the days of occupation. The hungarian soldiers killed men, women, children and elders while singing horror songs about “drinking romanian blood” and “killing every romanian alive, from child to old”. A ferocious massacre that hasn’t been punished not even today. In exchange of that, romanians are bind to assure laws and special rights for the hungarians living in our territory, hungarians with terrorist and imperialist attitudes.

      Our countries are never going to be friends, unless hungarians recognize the bad it has made in the past and gives up the imperialistic politics.

  4. Author’s assumptions about Poland are rather naive ones. Resources and human capital is needed for one country to become a leader of Europe, and frankly Poland has neither. The only reason why Polish anti immigration stance and rightwing policies are allowed and tolerated, it’s because Polish nationalism has a long history of Russophobia, which makes it in the eyes of USG an excellent quality, big enough to supersede its aversion to nationalism. In short, Polish nationalism keeps Poland firmly in the USG vassalage, that’s why it is allowed to flourish.

    1. Resources and human capital are needed after a country has acquired sovereignty and some measure of intelligent centralization. The West has lots of resources and human capital, but sovereignty flows discreetly from the East Coast of the USA, and there is nobody intelligently commanding the resources and human capital available.

      The West’s best human capital spends its days making and marketing iPhone games to cat ladies.

      You need a brain before you go lift weights to get strong. If you are ripped, huge and strong but your brain is splattered on a brick wall behind you, you are not going to have a pulse for very long.

      Since Poland has suddenly made a show of acquiring sovereignty and intelligent centralization, I have reason to believe that Poland is going to outlast the West, resources notwithstanding, and face Russia as its main competitor in Europe.

      I do not see your other claim. I see Poland successfully resisting EU and USG efforts to impose immigration, multiculturalism, leftism, etc. while receiving military and economic aid. I do not see Poland accepting military and economic aid in exchange for adopting leftism. Whether or not the splattered-brain leadership of the West is going to succeed in forcing leftism on Poland in exchange for military and economic aid is something that I thought was going to happen until last year, and it looks increasingly doubtful. Time will tell.

  5. Arthur Marian May 16, 2016 at 7:16 pm

    Interesting article, if perhaps a bit too optimistic. However, to call the present Law and Justice party “conservative” is not to understand Polish politics. Many of its policies and aspirations are decidedly left-wing as understood in the West. Its election victory was partly won by a promise to redistribute wealth, increase the buying power of the poorest citizens, to strengthen employment laws, to increase the influence of the state in capital investment, and to restrict the power of the free market to push down wages. This is one of the reasons why the traditional “left” has been eliminated from Parliament – they were outflanked and no longer needed. The mix of conservative, traditional social policy and left-wing economic policy is what basically won them the 2015 elections with a parliamentary majority.

    Polish public opinion is deeply divided between what I would call the “Brussellsish Party”and the “Trump-Orbanish Party”. Each has their media, spokesmen and heroes, and the only dialog between them is a dialog of the deaf. By definition, then, Poland is a real democracy, but I don’t think that at present it is ready to be a successor state of the Habsburg Empire.

    1. By the sound of it, Law and Justice wants to implement left-wing economic policies for a strictly white population with conservative social mores. There is a popular word on the Left for that, I’ll let you guess what it is…

      And it’s usually placed on the right end of the spectrum.

      Poland may not yet be ready to be the successor state to the Habsburg Empire, but that role may be forced on it sooner than later. Whether Poland adapts or falters will be fascinating to watch — for what it’s worth, I would sooner bet that it adapts and prospers. Poles are not stupid, self-deprecating Slavic humor notwithstanding.

      1. Arthur Marian May 18, 2016 at 4:56 pm

        Let me think…National Democracy?…No, that’s not right – maybe Republican Socialism? – No, no, that’s not right, either. Sorry, you’ve got me beat….

  6. (1) I know that this trope of Hungarian friendliness towards Russia is a popular one, amongst neocons and alters alike (even if they have cardinally different feelings about that), but I am skeptical to what extent it is actually true. The Fidesz government has supplied Ukraine with surplus weapon stocks. It also seems to be hostile to the Alt Right, Jobbik regardless. Ironically out of all the countries on the planet it was Hungary where Richard Spencer and his associates were arrested for holding an identitarian meeting. Dugin was recently deported from a meeting he wanted to attend in Greece… with Hungary having taken the lead in enforcing EU sanctions against him.

    (2) Since this issue is a big deal amongst NRx and traditionalists, I am curious to see it addressed – what do proponents of Polish conservatism and vigor make of the fact that its fertility rates are one of the very lowest in Europe? (Just the absence of Muslims can’t be a factor. Almost entirely homogenously white countries like Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Czechia, have recovered substantially; Poland remains stuck at less than 1.3 children per woman.

    1. (1) If Hungary is just less antagonistic towards Russia than other Western states (it clearly is), that is practically as good as being friendly with Russia in this rabid anti-Russian signalling climate, and both sides know it.

      (2) Closed borders and sovereign government are more important than fertility rates. Closed borders and sovereign government make recovery of fertility rates a possibility, the other way around it is not possible.

      My guess is that most Polish babies being born today are being born outside of Poland to Polish parents who are raising them in the diaspora where they make more money.

      The Polish fertility rate is low because probably a huge number of Poles avoid having kids in order to move abroad and become part of the diaspora and make more money.

      Once they move abroad however, if they do end up having kids, nobody counts them in the Polish national total, they just get counted in the national total of the country to which they emigrated. But if they continue to speak Polish, uphold Polish traditions, and visit Poland often (it is my overwhelming impression that they overwhelmingly do, to a degree that is at minimum several orders of magnitude higher than even Italians or Irish, and even higher than other Slavic/Eastern European emigrant groups), then Poland as such is winning and expanding.

      Well, Poland isn’t. But Polonia is — and isn’t that why Poland was important in the first place?

  7. Arthur Marian May 21, 2016 at 7:52 pm

    Aha! You’ve hit one of the sore points of the “Polish Miracle”. Freedom of movement within the EU has meant that the largest non-native immigrant group now in Great Britain is comprised of Poles, frequently married couples, within the 20-35 age group, whose birth rate is high. There are several causes, principally financial, where incomes are higher than in Poland, but also medical care, nursery accommodation and parenting benefits are substantially better. Because of higher incomes housing is more accessible, and job security tends to be superior in the UK. Whilst the majority of their parents compare present Polish society with the past Communist system, their children can only make comparisons with what Western and North Western Europe has to offer, and have voted with their feet.

    There are also structural reasons for this mass emigration. Compared to Poland, it is laughably easy in the UK to set up your own company. The system of Government, from the top downwards is far more user friendly in the UK. I have experience of both societies, and can recommend Polish bureaucracy as a daunting test of intelligence, persistence, patience and endurance that only the toughest can survive. The UK as a destination is now losing ground to Germany, and there will, no doubt, be further losses of the “fertile generation”.

    Poland’s greatest loss, and Britain’s gain, apart from the lowered birth rate, is the loss of so many skilled and semi-skilled manual workers. Poland is a major manufacturing center, and plant managers are beginning to ring alarm bells about a labor shortage. Immigrant Ukrainians in Poland (a milion or so at present) have relieved the labor shortage to a degree, but the bureaucracy is still scratching their heads on how to increase the quotas.

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